The role of magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia
N.V. Izmozherova, M.A. Shambatov, V.M. Bakhtin, A.A. Popov
Ural State Medical University, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Magnesium is the second most common intracellular cation and plays an essential role in the implementation of cellular functions. Increasing importance is attached to the effect of magnesium deficiency on the structure and mechanical homeostasis of connective tissue (CT). Magnesium deficiency causes the development of a number of conditions, and undifferentiated CT dysplasia is one of the most common. This review highlights modern approaches to assessing the relationship between magnesium deficiency and the development of CT pathology. Mg2+ ions participate in the stabilization of the secondary and tertiary structures of nucleic acids, forming cationic bridges between anionic phosphate groups. Magnesium is involved in the regulation of the balance of formation, degradation of fibrillar and non-fibrillar components of the extracellular matrix by decreasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes and stimulating collagen and aggrecan synthesis. Magnesium enhances the mitotic activity of CT cells by increasing the processes of protein synthesis and triggering signaling pathways associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin. Mg2+ ions promote the conversion of fibroblast integrins into a high-affinity form, allowing them to bind to collagen, thereby increasing tissue stability and integrity. Magnesium deficiency is associated with an increase in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases, which is a key factor in CT degradation. A lack of magnesium leads to the accumulation of defective collagen, a decrease in the synthesis of structural and signal proteins, nucleic acids, and suppression of the mitotic activity of cells. A decrease in the affinity of fibroblast integrins for collagen arising under conditions of magnesium deficiency leads to tissue disorganization. Thus, magnesium deficiency is associated with impaired cell functioning and the integrity of the CT extracellular matrix.
About the Autors
Corresponding author: Nadezhda V. Izmozherova, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Ural State Medical University, Yekaterinburg, Russia; email@example.com