Department of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University(Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia
The article deals with the mechanisms of neuroplasticity, the final outcome of which is a negative result (maladaptive neuroplasticity). By the example of post-stroke motor disorders, its causes are analyzed. The significance of activation of the contralesional cerebral hemisphere, is discussed; although it facilitates the process of restoration of lost functions, it can, however, adversely affect the degree of paresis restoration due to the formation of a pathological motor pattern. The mechanism of transscollosal inhibition also plays a role by the slowing down recovery in the affected area. The maladaptive effect of neuroplasticity is also discussed in the context of sensory disturbances of central origin. The structural and functional bases of cross-modal neuroplasticity are considered in detail. It is emphasized that for violations in one of the sensory modalities, created cross-modal system can have a maladaptive effect due to differences from the existing reality, adversely affecting the unimpaired sensory functions and hindering the processes of optimal recovery. It is noted that such maladaptive manifestations are less pronounced in children. It is concluded that the mechanisms of maladaptive neuroplasticity are heterogeneous. In any case, however, they must be taken into account when planning rehabilitation measures.
Keywords: neuroplasticity, maladaptive plasticity, post-stroke motor recovery, transcollosal inhibition, multisensory integration, maladaptive effect of cross-modal plasticity
About the Autors
Corresponding author: I.V. Damulin – MD, Prof. at the Department of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia; tel. +7 (499) 248-63-73, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org